Appreciate the discussion in this piece. It is something I have thought about for years, and actually one of the reasons I don’t look forward to when I return to Canada where everything is so remote. Imagining a no-fly future — whether due to carbon laws, massively increased expense, or the threat of RPGs (see Ministry for the Future my fav book of 2022 for more on that extreme form of flygskam) — I would rather live some place like Europe or Japan: dense with a good rail system. Even if you could never leave by air, the on-the-ground travel links are so good you could still enjoy the travelling life without the extreme GHG emissions. It is like buying two cakes.